X-ray CT (computed tomography) can image objects in 3D non-destructively. The CT images are segmented into different "phases" (materials with different densities) based on their gray levels. Using the segmentation results, you can calculate grain, particle, or pore size distribution, fiber orientation, aspect ratio distribution, etc. The technique is applied to geological studies of grains and inclusions in rocks, analyses of pores in foams, characterization of fibers in composites, etc.

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sandstone grain size distribution

Particle/Pore/Fiber Analysis Application Examples